Native American Heroes

By: Shivon Adams

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Native American Heroes

Introduction

There are many reocorded heroes in the Native American nations. Much of what we know about these heroes are that they either was the creator of everything, they kepted the villages guarded, or helped their tribe to escape from danger. Some examples of Native American Heroes are Chief Black Kettle, American Horse, and Cheyenne Dog Soldiers. Villagers put these indivisuals in charge because they were strong, brave, and had warlike attitudes.




Chief Black Kettle
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Chief Black Kettle

was best known as the peaceful leader that everyone looked to for advice and to keep the tribe safe. Black Kettle was called Motavato by friends and family, and was born in 1803 near the Black Hills of South Dakota. He later joined the Southern Cheyenne and later became the chief of Wuhtapiu, after decades of showing strong leadership abilities. Since Black Kettle and his group lived in the territory of Western Kansas and eastern Colorado, he had to keep the peace under the Treaty of Fort Laramine. Chief Black Kettle feared that if he didn't agree to the treaty, then a less favorable offer of land would be given. Black Kettle tried his best to make sure the Cheyenne obeyed the conditons of the treaty. Despite his attempts to make everyone comfortable, the Sand Creek reservation couldn't support the Cheyenne that were forced to stay there. The land was horrible for farming, and the herds of buffalos needed were over 200 miles away. In addition to the problems they were already having, the reservation was starting to be a breeding area for diseases that killed many in their wakes. Many of the deperate Cheyenne started sneaking out the reservation to steal items from passing wagons, and hunting the livestock nearby. As the Civil war continued, the numbers of solidiers decreased, and without protection, the Indians furthered their attacks. Soon after, the area settlers became angry and formed a volunteer army, and led to Colorado, which ended in the Sand Creek Massacre. Being the peacful man that he was Black Kettle always counseled peace, even when the Cheynne continously attacked them. Although many people refused to follow him, Black Kettle led his band to Kansas, but his wife was shot several times and didn't survive.

American Horse
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American Horse

was the wittiest and shrewdest of the Sioux Chiefs, who was named after his uncle that was killed in the battle of Slim Buttes in 1876. When American Horse was born, his grandtather told him: "Put him out in the sun! Let him ask his great-grandfather, the Sun, for the warm blood of a warrior!" Growing up, he was the most clownish boy out of all of his friends, and he was a great impersonator. His ability to be the center of attention made him popular and helped him be the natural leader he was. Also he was a skilled actor, which marked his skill as a strong speaker. Around the time he was 10 he was attacked by Crow warriors, and he used his cunning leadership skills to trick the Crows into chasing the ponie while he hid. Since he was so childish and silly, he made many mistakes, and he made up for by using his acting skills and his ability to make people laugh to take the heat off of him. Several years later, he was sleeping soundly and his tribe was raided by Crows. American Horse attempted to join in the fight, but ended up just shooting a pony that belonged to their tribe. It is told that young American Horse went with a war party to ambush the Shoshones, and killed game and then feasted on it between the ambush and attack. Once when him and his warriors were sneaking on a herd of buffalo, a grizzly bear came up behind them. American Horse yelled to his companions to run and seperate/ Although his warriors got away, the bear chased after him. He climbed a tree in a hurry, and the bear only took his apparel as his trophy.

Cheyenne Dog Soldiers

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The Dog Soliers

The Dog-Man, Dog Soldier Society, was organized after the organization of the other societies was chosen by the Great Prophet. He was sad the first couple of days because no one in the camp wanted to join his society.All the other medicine-men had no problems establishing their societies, but since he wasn't was a medicine-men he had no influence to follow his leadership. He prayed to the Great Prophet and the Great Medicine Man for assistance, so they gave him a song to sing. When he started to sing this sacred song, large and small dogs started to howl and whine. After many nights of him singing to the dogs, hundreds of men wanted to join his camp. They regretted the fact that they refused to join it earlier. Their uniforms were a bonnet covered with feathers that came from birds of prey, a whistle, and a bow and arrow. The Dog Soldier had many men join his tribe because they were a strong tribe, and majority if them came from the Masiskota band. Soon after the Cheyenne band joined, the Dog Solider became the most aggressive, important and distinct warriors anyone had seen. Although they were gaining more people, the Dog Solider also had countless enemies. They had so many that the Cheyenne chiefs left them to decide whether or not they wanted to make peace with them. The Dog Solider were also conservative, and followed their tribal culture hero in the advice that they shouldn't have intercourse with the white people. In 1860, they refused to sign the treaty that was submitted by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs because they would never settle on a reservation. The Dog Soldier joined tribes from the Northern and Southern Cheyennes, but didn't want anyone to know, until a group of decoys lured them out the fort.



Bibliography:
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-dogsoldiers2.html
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-shoshone.html
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-sioux.html
http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/1868_la.html
http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-cheyenne.html
http://www.lastoftheindependents.com/sandcreek.htm
http://www.angelfire.com/wy/9infantry/battle3.html