Babylonian Patheon

By: Sante Eddie
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Babylonia was the capital of the ancient land of Babylonia in southern Mesopotamia, a fertile plain located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, south of modern day Baghdad (Iraq). Around 2050-2000 BC, the great kingdom of the Sumerians was attacked by external invaders and Sumeria had been a powerful kingdom in the western part of Asia, and it had roughly occupied the land that was one day to become Babylonia. The history of Babylonia is considered to start out with Hammurabi, who became the king of the city Babylon in 1792 BC. Hammurabi enlarged his kingdom and established a vast kingdom in the region that had been formerly occupied by the Summerians. The babylon people were very influeced by the older Summerians. Between the 16th century and the 12th century BC other external invaders (the Kassites, Assyrians and the Elamites) gained control over Babylonia. Hammurabi's dynasty (that is called the First Dynasty of Babylon), which lasted about 200 years, Babylonia entered into a period of extreme prosperity and relative peace. Between the 16th century and the 12th century BC other external invaders (the Kassites, Assyrians and the Elamites) gained control over Babylonia. Towards the end of the 12th century BC, however, a Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar, defeated the invaders and re-established the kingdom of Babylonia. Nebuchadnezzar added a good deal of land to Babylonia and eventually attacked Assyria. His dynasty (called the Second Dynasty of Babylon), helped by one of the most powerful tribes outside Babylon, the Chaldeans, ruled Babylonia until 539 BC. This is when the Persians conquered this region. Babylon fell to Persia and this ended Babylonian independence and also the history of the ancient Mesopotamian empires.

The Babylonians believed in a pantheon consisting of powerful immortal gods, each of whom ruled a particular aspect of the cosmos, such as the earth, heaven, seas, mountains and rivers. Each Babylonian had a personal god to whom prayers were addressed. Every day sacrifices of food, drink or incense were offered to the gods. Each of the important deities had a large temple in which he or she was worshipped. Religious rituals were led by priests, a separate and important class in Babylonian society. Temple services were generally conducted in open courts containing fountains for washing themeselves. However, only the high priest and a member of the court were permitted to enter the inner part of the temple, which contained the statues of gods or goddesses.
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Society, Economy, Politics
Baylonian had a dozen urban center surrouneded by villages. The fertile soil of Mesopotamia made agriculture the base of Babylonian economy. Babylonian society consisted of three classes: the upper strata (called awilu), the low strata (called mushkenu), and the slaves (called wardu). Babylonian women had some legal rights, such as the right to hold property or to engage in business. men were given more legal rights than women. They could quite easily divorce their wives and sell their wives and children into slavery if they could not provide for them.

Babylonia made many of the cultural and technicals achievements of the Summerians. They were also skilled as engineers and scientific literature of the Babylonians included treatises on astronomy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, botany, and nature.